Research paper writing tips
Reference a Journal Article. Last updated: if this information is available. HealthTips Superfoods and where to find them. Last updated 20 May Last name of author, First initial. Title of page [Social media format]. Proud, F. Food lovers group [Facebook].
Written 5 June Available from: www. Year of release. Country of Origin: Film studio or maker. Any other relevant details. Username of contributor. Video Title , Series Title if relevant. Available at: URL.
Research, Writing, and Style Guides - A Research Guide for Students
Egg custard — simple recipe! Broadcasting organisation and channel, date and time of transmission. World Kitchen: Nigeria, episode 5. BBC 1, first transmitted 30 July , Year of production. Title of image. Hewer, D. Women enjoying a cup of tea. Document number , London: Food Photography Library.
Map maker's name. Year of issue. Title of map. Map series, sheet number, scale. Place of publication: publisher. SpeedyQuest maps. Map of Biddiford.
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Local Maps, sheet 5, scale Nottingham: Local Publications. Programme title , series title if relevant. Innovative Baking , Innovative Food. Transmitted 16 October Marks and Spencers. Last name of author, first initial. Title of dissertation. Official name of university. Neath, G. An examination of Mexican food in popular culture.
Harvard Style Paper Guidelines
Masters level. Oxford Brookes University. Short title key words capitalised , which includes the year and the chapter number in brackets.
Title of document. City of publication: publisher, Page s if relevant. Last name of interviewer, first initial, and last name of interviewee, first initial. Recording title. City published: music label. Referencing Harvard. Harvard Referencing Guide Harvard is a referencing style which is used widely across a range of disciplines; it could arguably be deemed the "most commonly used" style.
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Direct: '"Chocolate has an infinite variety of uses" Davis, , p. For example: Davis, B. A History of Chocolate. Davis, B. For example: Jones, F. For example: James, P. For example: King, S. For example: Brown, G. Mexican Food. Brown, G. Japanese Food. Chinese Food. Italian Food. For example: Jenkins, O. For example: Bell, Y. For example: Ilkes, J. For example: HealthTips For example: James, D. New business plan for McDowells. For example: Proud, F. For example: The World's Best Curries. Directed by J. K: Foodie Studios. For example: Yummydishes. For this reason, an abstract has to offer everything the reader needs in order to evaluate the relevance of a research paper for their own work.
It is the ultimate way of advertising your research. You can save yourself a lot of work and trouble if you concentrate on reading the abstracts of published papers first; most papers these days provide abstracts cf. If you take your time to thoroughly read the abstracts, you will be able to judge whether a particular article will help you to support your line of argumentation. If not, then just move on the next article.
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You can check out the sample abstracts in this blog entry to get a better idea of how to write an abstract and what an abstract looks like. An abstract is a summary of a publication or an article on one third of a DIN-A4 page cf.
Kruse The reason for this is self-explanatory: The purpose of the abstract is to offer a quick overview of, for example, a or page paper. Recommended: Harvard Referencing. You are probably wondering where the abstract should be placed in your research paper: at the beginning or towards the end? It is common to include the abstract right at the beginning cf. As we have established, it is a helpful tool for the reader to get an overview of the whole paper as early as possible.
It is good to know what will follow. So, it would not be logical to put it at the end, right? Stickel-Wolf and Wolf recommend embedding the abstract in between the title page and the table of contents cf. When is the right time to write the abstract? Given that it is to be added at the very beginning, before the actual text, you might think it is the first thing you are supposed to write. However, you will not be able to write a clear-cut and precise summary at a stage when you do not even know what you are summarizing. Therefore, you can only write the abstract after you have written the whole paper.
How else would you know enough about your results to give a complete record of your whole work cf. Note: You can draw essential information to write your abstract from your conclusion, as this part briefly repeats the research questions and provides an evaluative summary of the results cf. Stickel-Wolf It increasingly concerns international students as well. Nowadays, it is becoming more and more important to write the whole paper in English, rather than in the native language of the country a student studies in.
Indeed, many papers are still written in the native language of the country. But your research paper not being written in English does not mean that this also holds true for the abstract. Often, the student needs to write an abstract in not only German, Spanish, or French depending on the country you study in but also English.